Holocene and Anthropocene sea-level records from Indonesia (HAnsea)
Sea-level changes through the Holocene have been geographically variable. Large-scale mechanisms responsible for the observed variability comprise the interplay between eustatic melt-water contributions and isostatic adjustments of the solid Earth resulting from postglacial mass exchange between polar ice sheets and the oceans. These processes are further nuanced through oceanographic factors that act on shorter time scales and regionally constrained.
During the early Holocene, sea level has been rising rapidly in equatorial ocean basins, reflecting a dominant eustatic contribution far from the ice sheets. In the middle Holocene, when melting of ice sheets slowed down, isostasy became the dominant control on sea-level changes in the tropics as subsiding peripheral forebulges in higher latitudes induced a redistribution of water masses away from the equator towards the poles. In the late Holocene / Anthropocene, tropical sea-level variability has been largely determined by dynamic oceanographic and steric factors. Knowledge of the spatial and temporal interplay between the dominant drivers of Holocene sea-level changes in the far field is essential to understand past ice sheet dynamics, constrain Earth parameters in glacial isostatic adjustment models and evaluate anthropogenic influences (Fig. 1).